Chapter 1

Chapter: 1, Question 1, Total: 0:
The EMT's initial evaluation of the scene is called the:

scene size-up.
initial assessment.
hazard assessment.
primary assessment.

Chapter: 1, Question 2, Total: 1:
Which of the following elements would be considered parts of the mechanism of injury?

A scene safety hazard such as an unstable vehicle
The patient's chief complaint
A specific injury such as a fractured femur
The speed of the vehicle that struck the patient

Chapter: 1, Question 3, Total: 2:
You are performing a scene size-up at a large motor vehicle crash scene. Which of the following elements should be assessed first?

Possible hazards to your safety.
The need for additional resources.
The number of patients.
A general impression of the patient.

Chapter: 1, Question 4, Total: 3:
Which of the following would be considered one of the three basic goals of the scene size-up?

Determining the patient's medical history
Determining what led to your being called to the scene
Determining the patient's chief complaint
Determining whether the patient is breathing

Chapter: 1, Question 5, Total: 4:
You are dispatched to the scene of a child who was bitten by a dog. What step of the scene size-up can you begin to perform before arrival?

Determine whether the animal has been secured.
Place the trauma kit in close proximity.
Establish the seriousness of the bite.
Instruct bystanders on bleeding control.

Chapter: 1, Question 6, Total: 5:
Your unit arrives first at the scene of a tractor-trailer motor vehicle crash. Your partner notes that he sees hazardous materials placards on the truck. You should first:

use your intercom to ask the driver to come to the ambulance.
approach the truck to identify the placard.
immediately leave the scene.
stage in place, uphill and upwind from the scene.

Chapter: 1, Question 7, Total: 6:
What is the purpose for establishing a danger zone while working at a motor vehicle crash scene?

To ensure that the traffic will be rerouted around the wreckage
To designate the area where special safety precautions should be taken
To require additional equipment to be dispatched to the scene
To establish the area where the fire department will be operating

Chapter: 1, Question 8, Total: 7:
Which of the following would be the appropriate place to park an ambulance if you were responding to a hazardous materials scene that involved gases or fumes?

Uphill from the scene
Level with the scene
Downhill from the scene
Downwind from the scene

Chapter: 1, Question 9, Total: 8:
You have been dispatched to 29 Park Avenue for a man having chest pain. As you approach the house, you hear loud voices and verbal threats coming from inside. You should:

use the PA system to announce your arrival.
approach the scene quietly.
NOT enter the scene.
direct everyone to move away from the patient.

Chapter: 1, Question 10, Total: 9:
Which of the following scenes would require you to be extra vigilant?

A large crowd at a daycare
An unusually quiet scene
Police on scene motioning you in
A noisy scene room in a factory

Chapter: 1, Question 11, Total: 10:
Which of the following provides the best protection against bloodborne pathogens?

Standard Precautions
The use of HEPA respirators
Decontamination of common surfaces
Appropriate personal decontamination

Chapter: 1, Question 12, Total: 11:
You suspect that your patient may have tuberculosis. Which of the following should be added to your personal protective equipment?

Shoe covers
Simple face mask
N-95 mask

Chapter: 1, Question 13, Total: 12:
Which of the following would be indicated by a patient found sitting in a tripod position?

A stroke
Abdominal pain
Respiratory distress
Trouble swallowing

Chapter: 1, Question 14, Total: 13:
Your patient is an elderly male who has paralysis of his right arm and leg. What is likely the nature of his illness?

Renal failure
Heart attack

Chapter: 1, Question 15, Total: 14:
An explosion has occurred at a local church. You are the first responding medical unit, and you note many patients lying in the street. After establishing incident command, you should next:

begin caring for the closest patient.
return to the ambulance until additional resources arrive.
begin primary triage.
call for additional resources and begin the scene size-up.

Chapter: 1, Question 16, Total: 15:
A 77-year-old female complains of chest pain. When you arrive, her husband greets you at the front door. You note that he is out of breath, sweaty, and holding his chest. You should:

assess his wife first but then return to him once you have confirmed that she is non-emergent.
immediately focus your attention only on him.
radio for an additional unit and have your partner assess him while you check on his wife.
ask him where the patient is located.

Chapter: 1, Question 17, Total: 16:
You are dispatched to a motor vehicle crash on a street in a residential neighborhood. As you pull up, you note that none of the houses along the street have lights on. You should suspect:

downed power lines.
that the houses are not occupied.
a violent ambush.
that the residents are not yet home from work.

Chapter: 1, Question 18, Total: 17:
You are dispatched for a 35-year-old male complaining of chest pain. You arrive on scene at a residential address in a very run-down section of town. You approach the scene carefully, and upon entering, you find that the patient has been shot in the chest. You should:

provide treatment of immediate life threats and then leave the scene.
provide treatment of immediate life threats only.
exit the scene and call for law enforcement.
call for law enforcement and then begin care.

Chapter: 1, Question 19, Total: 18:
Which of the following is associated with a scene size-up and is used in assessing a patient who has received a traumatic injury?

Nature of illness
Index of suspicion
Index of injury
Mechanism of injury

Chapter: 1, Question 20, Total: 19:
You arrive at the scene of an overturned vehicle. Your scene size-up identifies power lines lying across the road that you would use to approach the vehicle. You should:

stage in place and await the power company.
stay in the vehicle until you have cleared the downed lines.
yell to the victim to self-evacuate.
get out of the vehicle and jump over the lines as you approach.

Chapter: 1, Question 21, Total: 20:
Your ambulance has been dispatched to a multiple-car motor vehicle crash. Dispatch has alerted you that fire and rescue units are en route. As you approach the scene, you should:

review the trauma triage criteria.
remove your seat belt to allow easy exit of the ambulance.
look and listen for other emergency units approaching from side streets.
don personal protective equipment.

Chapter: 1, Question 22, Total: 21:
Which of the following would represent the next best location to park if you could not park upwind or uphill from a scene of a gasoline spill?

Downwind from the spill
In the drainage ditch
Behind a barrier
Downhill from the spill

Chapter: 1, Question 23, Total: 22:
You are caring for a 19-year-old male who was shot during a gang confrontation. The police have secured the scene and requested you to treat the patient. In addition to patient care, you should:

refuse to treat any patient at this crime scene.
have one EMT constantly watch bystanders and the surrounding area.
assist law enforcement in searching the scene for clues.
ask the patient about the crime so that you can report the answers to law enforcement.

Chapter: 1, Question 24, Total: 23:
A 68-year-old female complains of respiratory distress. She says that she has been sick for three days, and she has a history of COPD. You note that she is coughing forcefully into a napkin. Which of the following would be the most appropriate personal protective equipment for use on this scene?

Gloves, eye protection, and mask
Gloves and eye protection
Mask and eye protection
Gloves and gown

Chapter: 1, Question 25, Total: 24:
The type of medical condition or complaint a patient is suffering from is referred to as the:

history of the present illness.
nature of illness.
mechanism of injury.
index of suspicion.

Chapter: 1, Question 26, Total: 25:
A 39-year-old male complains of respiratory distress, cough, and a fever. The patient weighs 400 pounds and lives on the second floor of a small house. You determine that transport is indicated. You should next:

request additional lifting assistance.
manage the best you can with your partner.
get medical direction orders to treat and release.
have the patient walk down to the first floor.

Chapter: 1, Question 27, Total: 26:
Which of the following elements should be completed only after the EMT has finished the scene size-up?

Identify possible hazards.
Identify and manage life-threatening conditions.
Determine the mechanism of injury or nature of illness.
Assess the scene for additional resources that might be needed.

Chapter: 1, Question 28, Total: 27:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention states that a fall of greater than how many feet for an adult is considered to be a severe fall for which transport to a trauma center is recommended?


Chapter: 1, Question 29, Total: 28:
Penetrating trauma associated with handguns and shotguns is generally considered to be:

critical velocity.
low velocity.
medium velocity.
high velocity.

Chapter: 1, Question 30, Total: 29:
You are dispatched to an auto accident. As you approach the scene, you notice that law enforcement is there and the fire department is close behind you. Four badly damaged vehicles are involved. You should next:

begin treatment.
contact dispatch and request additional EMS units.
determine the number of victims.
position the ambulance to protect the scene.

Chapter: 1, Question 31, Total: 30:
You should consider calling for advanced life support:

whenever your patient's airway is compromised.
for all patients with external bleeding.
for all patients.
for patients who are receiving supplemental oxygen.

Chapter: 1, Question 32, Total: 31:
An accident scene involving a chemical spill would likely require the additional resources of what entity?

Water rescue

Chapter 2

Chapter: 2, Question 1, Total: 32:
As you interview a patient with a medical complaint, the reason why the ambulance was called for is often called the:

mechanism of injury.
SAMPLE history.
chief complaint.
physical examination.

Chapter: 2, Question 2, Total: 33:
Which of the following acronyms may be used in assessing the patient's level of consciousness?


Chapter: 2, Question 3, Total: 34:
Which of the following phases of patient assessment would be conducted immediately after the scene size-up?

Primary assessment
Transport decision
Rapid trauma assessment
Baseline vitals

Chapter: 2, Question 4, Total: 35:
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the primary assessment?

Critical conditions that are identified during the primary assessment must be treated immediately as found.
You cannot gain enough information about the patient during the primary assessment to make a transport decision.
The main purpose of the primary assessment is to perform a head-to-toe physical examination to discover injuries.
The primary assessment includes airway, breathing, and circulation (ABCs) and baseline vitals.

Chapter: 2, Question 5, Total: 36:
A 66-year-old female has been found apneic and pulseless. You should immediately:

begin chest compressions.
insert an OPA.
open the patient's airway.
initiate positive pressure ventilations.

Chapter: 2, Question 6, Total: 37:
A 45-year-old female is found unconscious. She is not breathing but has a pulse. You should NEXT:

initiate positive pressure ventilations.
apply an AED.
administer supplemental oxygen.
initiate chest compressions.

Chapter: 2, Question 7, Total: 38:
A 13-year-old male has crashed an ATV. He was not wearing a helmet and was found unconscious. His airway is patent, but he has crepitus and diminished lung sounds in his right chest. Which of the following destinations would be most appropriate for this patient?

A level III trauma center 12 miles away
A community hospital 5 miles away
A level I trauma center 14 miles away
An urgent care center 3 miles away

Chapter: 2, Question 8, Total: 39:
Which of the following findings would address the breathing section of the primary assessment?

Pale skin
Capillary refill time
Cyanotic skin
Absent radial pulse

Chapter: 2, Question 9, Total: 40:
During your primary assessment, you note blood in the patient's mouth and hear gurgling. You should NEXT:

proceed on to evaluation of the patient's breathing.
suction the airway and clear any secretions.
initiate abdominal thrusts to clear the secretions.
proceed on to the evaluation of the patient's circulation.

Chapter: 2, Question 10, Total: 41:
A 56-year-old male has fallen off a 12-foot ladder. After ensuring scene safety and completing the scene size-up, you should NEXT:

take manual cervical spine precautions.
question bystanders.
assess baseline vital signs.
asses the patient's airway.

Chapter: 2, Question 11, Total: 42:
How would you assess the mental status of an infant who appears unresponsive?

Shake the infant and shout.
Shout as a verbal stimulus, and flick the feet as a painful stimulus.
Ask the caregiver whether the infant is alert.
Do a light sternal rub to elicit a painful response.

Chapter: 2, Question 12, Total: 43:
Which of the following would be the BEST method to open the airway on an unresponsive trauma patient?

Insert an oropharyngeal airway
Place patient in a sniffing position
Head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
Jaw-thrust maneuver

Chapter: 2, Question 13, Total: 44:
Which of the following phases of patient interaction is most likely the phase in which the EMT will discover and deal with life-threatening problems?

General impression
Patient history
Primary assessment
Secondary assessment

Chapter: 2, Question 14, Total: 45:
A 21-year-old male patient has been shot in the chest and is breathing rapidly. Law enforcement has determined that the scene is safe, and you have completed a scene size-up. You should NEXT:

make a transport decision.
ensure that the patient has an open airway.
listen to the patient's lung sounds.
check for a pulse.

Chapter: 2, Question 15, Total: 46:
A 40-year-old male has crashed his motorcycle. Your general impression identifies that he is unconscious and that he has spurting blood pouring out of the junction between his leg and his groin. You also hear gurgling respirations. You should first:

suction the patient's airway.
open the patient's airway using the jaw-thrust maneuver.
apply direct pressure to the bleeding wound.
assess for a carotid pulse.

Chapter: 2, Question 16, Total: 47:
Forming your general impression of the patient can essentially be characterized as:

your interpretation of the patient after the primary assessment.
your interpretation of the patient before the scene size-up.
your first intuitive evaluation of the patient.
your interpretation of the patient after the medical interview.

Chapter: 2, Question 17, Total: 48:
During your assessment of a patient who is suspected of having had a stroke, you have to pinch his nail beds for him to respond. Which of the following would best categorize this patient's mental status?

The patient is alert.
The patient responds to painful stimuli.
The patient is unresponsive.
The patient responds to verbal stimuli.

Chapter: 2, Question 18, Total: 49:
A 58-year-old male crashed his vehicle at high speed. He was not wearing his seatbelt and has a deep laceration on his forehead and neck pain. It is not clear whether there was a period of unconsciousness before your arrival on the scene. Which of the following would best define the patient's transport mode, given the previous information?

High priority to the nearest hospital
Low priority to the nearest hospital
Low priority to the trauma center
High priority to the trauma center

Chapter: 2, Question 19, Total: 50:
A 25-year-old male was shot in the leg. His bleeding has been controlled. When assessing this patient's circulation in the primary assessment, you should also consider:

blood pressure.
pulse oximetry reading.
lung sounds.
peripheral pulses.

Chapter: 2, Question 20, Total: 51:
During the primary assessment, an example of a life threat to circulation that must be managed right away would be:

very cold, pale skin.
a throbbing headache.
external arterial bleeding.
nausea and stomach pain.

Chapter: 2, Question 21, Total: 52:
A 70-year-old female complains of abdominal pain and vomiting blood. She appears weak and pale. Her airway is patent, and her breathing is adequate, although fast. You attempt to find a radial pulse but cannot locate it. This finding most likely indicates:

cardiac dysrhythmia.

Chapter: 2, Question 22, Total: 53:
n which of the following patients would you check a brachial pulse initially?


Chapter 3

Chapter: 3, Question 1, Total: 54:
The pressure exerted against the walls of the arteries when the left ventricle contracts is called:

pulse pressure.
diastolic pressure.
systolic pressure.

Chapter: 3, Question 2, Total: 55:
Any pulse rate above 100 beats per minute is called:


Chapter: 3, Question 3, Total: 56:
You are treating a patient with the following vital signs: blood pressure: 150/92, pulse: 98, respirations: 16, SpO2: 96 percent. The EMT knows that this patient has:


Chapter: 3, Question 4, Total: 57:
Which of the following vital signs indicates the rhythmic beats that are felt as the heart pumps blood through the arteries?

Pupil changes

Chapter: 3, Question 5, Total: 58:
What term is used to describe the first set of vital signs that are obtained?


Chapter: 3, Question 6, Total: 59:
Why is more than one set of vital signs assessed on a patient?

To double-check for accuracy
To see trends in the patient's condition
For the practice
Because it is tradition to check vitals twice

Chapter: 3, Question 7, Total: 60:
Vital signs of an unstable patient should be reassessed and recorded:

every 10 minutes.
whenever a new care provider assumes care.
every 5 minutes.
every 15 minutes.

Chapter: 3, Question 8, Total: 61:
A three-month-old patient was found unresponsive and apneic in her crib. After ensuring scene safety and performing a scene size-up, you should NEXT:

check the pulse at the carotid artery.
check the pulse at the radial artery.
check the pulse at the brachial artery.
hook up the pulse oximeter.

Chapter: 3, Question 9, Total: 62:
Which one of the following statements about recording vital signs is TRUE?

Recording of vital signs can be done by memory after the call is over.
There is no reason to record vital signs that are within normal limits. Record only those that are abnormal.
Only the first and last sets of vital signs are important enough to record.
Record all vital signs as you obtain them, along with the time at which you took them.

Chapter: 3, Question 10, Total: 63:
For whose benefit should you keep accurate records of vital signs?

The patient's personal physician
The insurance company
Medical records
The patient

Chapter: 3, Question 11, Total: 64:
To adequately assess the patient's respirations, the EMT should:

count the number of respirations over 45 seconds and divide by 3.
count the number of respirations over 15 seconds and multiply by 10.
count the number over 20 seconds and multiply by 2.
count the number of respirations over 30 seconds and multiply by 2.

Chapter: 3, Question 12, Total: 65:
A reliable indicator of perfusion in children younger than six years of age is:

pulse rate.
pupil size.
capillary refill.
skin color.

Chapter: 3, Question 13, Total: 66:
Which one of the following has the HIGHEST priority?

Pulse rate
Blood pressure
Pulse oximetry

Chapter: 3, Question 14, Total: 67:
While inflating the blood pressure cuff on a 56-year-old male complaining of chest pain, you notice that he loses consciousness. You should:

continue on and assess his skin.
immediately assess his breathing status.
assess a radial pulse.
complete the assessment of the blood pressure.

Chapter: 3, Question 15, Total: 68:
Which of the following would be an expected pupil response to a narcotic overdose?

Dilated pupils
Nonreactive pupils
Constricted pupils
Unequal pupils

Chapter: 3, Question 16, Total: 69:
The average range for an adult's respirations would be:

40 to 60 breaths per minute.
25 to 35 breaths per minute.
12 to 20 breaths per minute.
4 to 6 breaths per minute.

Chapter: 3, Question 17, Total: 70:
Which one of the following is of greatest concern?

An infant with a pulse of 140
An infant with a pulse less than 60
An adult with a pulse of 80
An adult with a pulse of 140

Chapter: 3, Question 18, Total: 71:
An 11-year-old male has fallen off his bicycle. He complains of abdominal pain. His vital signs are P 150, R 30, BP 100/70. You should suspect:


Chapter: 3, Question 19, Total: 72:
The level of oxygen circulating through a patient's blood vessels is measured using a:

pulse oximeter.

Chapter: 3, Question 20, Total: 73:
Which of the following terms is another way of describing a rapid heart rate?


Chapter: 3, Question 21, Total: 74:
As an EMT, you will be measuring breathing, pulse, skin, pupils, and blood pressure. The FIRST set of measurements you take are most commonly referred to as:

baseline vital signs.
initial vital signs.
primary vital signs.
ongoing vital signs.

Chapter: 3, Question 22, Total: 75:
Listening with a stethoscope is also known as:


Chapter: 3, Question 23, Total: 76:
In adults, direct assessment of the circulatory status of the body can be performed by measuring the blood pressure and the:

respiratory rate.
pulse oximetry.

Chapter: 3, Question 24, Total: 77:
What method is best used to assess a patient's blood pressure in a noisy industrial environment?

Postpone until later
BP Monitor

Chapter: 3, Question 25, Total: 78:
Which one of the following can best help to evaluate the extent of hypoxia in a patient?

Pulse quality
Skin condition
Pulse oximetry
Skin color

Chapter: 3, Question 26, Total: 79:
A 59-year-old female has suffered sudden cardiac arrest. CPR has been successful in restoring breathing. A pulse check reveals a strong carotid pulse, but the patient is still unconscious. While expediting transport, you should also:

continue with chest compressions for 1 minute.
Check pulse and blood pressure again in 5 minutes.
check the pulse oximetry after 3 minutes.
reassess vital signs after 10 minutes.

Chapter: 3, Question 27, Total: 80:
Your patient presents with signs and symptoms of a stroke. Why is it important to keep accurate records of vital signs?

To avoid lawsuits, everything should be written down.
Important treatment decisions may be based on your documentation.
For insurance billing purposes.
In case hypertension medications must be given.

Chapter: 3, Question 28, Total: 81:
Which of the following monitoring devices is NOT generally used by the EMT?

Blood pressure cuff.
Glucose meter.
ECG monitor.
Pulse oximeter.

Chapter: 3, Question 29, Total: 82:
Which of the following results will occur from attempting to utilize a pulse oximeter on a patient who is anemic?

The meter may provide a falsely high reading.
The meter reading will become increasingly erratic.
The monitor will provide a falsely low reading.
The sensor will progress out of calibration.

Chapter: 3, Question 30, Total: 83:
A 33-year-old female is unconscious after a fall. You assess her respirations and note them to be regular at a rate of 9/min. You would describe this respiratory rate as:


Chapter: 3, Question 31, Total: 84:
Which of the following conditions would adversely affect the accuracy of a pulse oximeter reading?

Carbon monoxide poisoning
Pulmonary edema

Chapter: 3, Question 32, Total: 85:
A 26-year-old female complains of respiratory distress. You have completed your primary assessment, obtained a baseline set of vital signs, and been ordered by medical control to assist the patient with her bronchodilator inhaler. After administering the medication, you should NEXT:

ask the patient whether she has any allergies.
continue on to the patient history.
complete a detailed physical examination.
reassess vital signs.

Chapter: 3, Question 33, Total: 86:
The average range for an adult's pulse would be:

110 to 140 beats per minute.
60 to 100 beats per minute.
30 to 50 beats per minute.
12 to 20 beats per minute.

Chapter: 3, Question 34, Total: 87:
Which one of the following would be of the most concern?

Peripheral cyanosis in an adult with respiratory distress
Peripheral cyanosis in a newborn upon first APGAR scoring
Peripheral cyanosis in a shivering nine-year-old after swimming
Flushed skin in a sixteen-year-old basketball player after playing

Chapter 4

Chapter: 4, Question 1, Total: 88:
You are assessing a patient's chest when you detect a crackling or crunching sensation under the skin. What is this called?

Subcutaneous emphysema
Paradoxical motion

Chapter: 4, Question 2, Total: 89:
Which of the following terms BEST describes a list of potential diagnoses that is compiled early in the assessment of the patient?

Differential diagnosis
Critical thinking
EMS diagnosis
Red flag

Chapter: 4, Question 3, Total: 90:
A 66-year-old male patient has slipped on the ice, fallen, and broken his ankle. During your assessment, he states that he has diabetes. This statement would be considered part of the:

history of the present illness.
physical examination.
past medical history.
differential diagnosis.

Chapter: 4, Question 4, Total: 91:
Which of the choices is TRUE about the difference between a sign and a symptom?

A vague complaint that cannot be specifically described is a sign.
A piece of information that is obtained during baseline vitals assessment is a symptom.
Any objective physical evidence that you can see, hear, feel, or smell is a symptom.
A condition that must be described by the patient is a symptom.

Chapter: 4, Question 5, Total: 92:
Which of the following physical examination steps would BEST fit the examination of a conscious medical patient with a respiratory complaint?

Lung sound evaluation
The FAST examination
Assessment for jugular venous distention
Palpation of the abdomen

Chapter: 4, Question 6, Total: 93:
You ask your patient, "What does your discomfort in your chest feel like?" This would be an example of:

differential diagnosis.
a heuristic.
a closed-ended question.
an open-ended question.

Chapter: 4, Question 7, Total: 94:
What is the primary goal of the EMS approach to diagnosis?

To rule out life threats
To assess and cure
To reach a definitive diagnosis
To institute long-term treatment

Chapter: 4, Question 8, Total: 95:
Which of the following terms is sometimes described as an attitude of inquiry?

Patient assessment
Critical thinking
Differential diagnosis

Chapter: 4, Question 9, Total: 96:
The emergency department physician is assessing a patient when she is told that the patient has a sudden onset of tearing pain in the abdomen that radiates to the back. The patient is pale and hypotensive. Which of the following BEST describes this information?

Red flag
Physical exam
Assessment findings
Differential diagnosis

Chapter: 4, Question 10, Total: 97:
Which of the following questions is appropriate to ask a patient with neurological deficits?

"Have you had a headache?"
"Do you take aspirin?"
"Do you take nitroglycerin?"
"Do you have excessive urination?"

Chapter: 4, Question 11, Total: 98:
In obtaining the patient's history, which of the following is considered a sign?

Pain in the leg

Chapter: 4, Question 12, Total: 99:
Which of the following patients is MOST likely to experience hives?

Patient with an allergic reaction
Patient with an endocrine emergency
Patient with GI distress
Patient with neurological complaints

Chapter: 4, Question 13, Total: 100:
Where should the EMT begin when performing a rapid physical examination on an unresponsive medical patient?


Chapter: 4, Question 14, Total: 101:
Which of the following is TRUE about the rapid head-to-toe examination that is conducted on the unresponsive medical patient?

It is the same examination as is performed on a responsive medical patient.
It should include a blood glucose level.
It should be repeated every 15 minutes.
It is a rapid secondary assessment, similar to that conducted on a trauma patient.

Chapter: 4, Question 15, Total: 102:
A 40-year-old male has cut his finger in an industrial accident. You perform the scene size-up, conduct a primary assessment, and determine his chief complaint. You should next:

perform secondary assessment.
stabilize the neck and head.
perform a rapid trauma assessment.
obtain a past medical history.

Chapter: 4, Question 16, Total: 103:
A 25-year-old female had a minor fall from her motorcycle while stopped in traffic. She did not lose consciousness, and the accident was simply the result of a loss of balance with the motorcycle. Which of the following systems would be MOST important to assess first during the secondary assessment?


Chapter: 4, Question 17, Total: 104:
For which of the following patients should you request ALS response?

A 10-year-old boy who shows signs of physical abuse
A 4-year-old girl who was scratched near the eye by a cat
A 12-year-old boy who fell from his skateboard and suffered multiple abrasions on both legs
A 14-year-old girl who is unresponsive after a jet ski accident

Chapter: 4, Question 18, Total: 105:
Your patient is a 68-year-old female who responds to verbal stimuli by moaning. Her rapid physical examination is unremarkable. Which of the following actions is recommended before making a decision to call for ALS?

Assess baseline vital signs.
Get a list of her medications.
Get a patient history.
Begin transport.

Chapter: 4, Question 19, Total: 106:
In which of the components of OPQRST would you learn that the patient is having crushing pain?


Chapter: 4, Question 20, Total: 107:
In which part of OPQRST would you learn that your patient became dizzy after working in the garden?


Chapter: 4, Question 21, Total: 108:
You are called to an elementary school where a 7-year-old girl has reportedly had a seizure in her classroom and is now responsive only to painful stimulus. Which of the following is likely your BEST source of this patient's history of present illness?

The patient's pediatrician
The patient's teacher
The school medical records
The patient's mother

Chapter: 4, Question 22, Total: 109:
A mnemonic or memory aid that is used to help the EMS provider remember the information that must be included in a patient history is:


Chapter: 4, Question 23, Total: 110:
What is the purpose of repeating the assessment of your patient's chief complaint during reassessment?

To ensure that you have not exposed yourself to risk by negligence
To prompt you to address items that were overlooked in the initial assessment
To establish trust and commonality with the patient
To determine the effectiveness of your treatment plan

Chapter: 4, Question 24, Total: 111:
Which of the following might be discovered in the reassessment?

Initial blood pressure of 120/80
Change in respiratory rate and quality
Patient's allergies
List of patient's medications

Chapter: 4, Question 25, Total: 112:
For which of the following patients is it essential to perform the detailed physical examination while en route?

A 7-year-old patient who was bitten by a brown recluse spider
A 7-month-old patient with a seal bark cough
A 17-year-old patient who complains of nausea and vomiting
A 27-year-old bull rider who was trampled on the chest by a bull

Chapter: 4, Question 26, Total: 113:
Which of the following statements is TRUE about EMS diagnosis and treatment?

EMTs treat only life threats.
Treatment must be withheld until a diagnosis has been made.
EMTs neither treat nor diagnose.
The EMT may begin treatment before a definitive diagnosis has been reached.

Chapter: 4, Question 27, Total: 114:
The secondary assessment of the conscious medical patient is primarily focused on:

physical examination.
patient history.
vital signs.
bystander reports.

Chapter: 4, Question 28, Total: 115:
The secondary assessment of the conscious medical patient has four parts: history of the present illness, past medical history, physical examination, and:

bystander reports.
bedside diagnostics.
rapid trauma assessment.
vital signs.

Chapter: 4, Question 29, Total: 116:
Which of the following terms describes an analytical process that helps someone think through a problem in an organized and efficient manner?

Critical thinking
Differential diagnosis
EMT diagnosis

Chapter: 4, Question 30, Total: 117:
During which of the following would the EMT thoroughly examine the patient's face, ears, nose, eyes, and mouth?

Detailed physical examination
Past medical history
Rapid trauma assessment

Chapter: 4, Question 31, Total: 118:
Which of the following might be found when the EMT inspects the patient's chest?

Bilateral rales

Chapter: 4, Question 32, Total: 119:
Which of the following clinical findings would indicate that you should conduct a modified secondary assessment rather than a full head-to-toe secondary assessment?

Multiple thoracic and abdominal injuries
Significant MOI
No significant mechanism of injury
Altered mental status

Chapter: 4, Question 33, Total: 120:
Who got a higher score on the EMT mod 1 exam?


Chapter: 4, Question 34, Total: 121:
Your patient is unresponsive, has an unusual odor on his breath, and is incontinent of urine. You should suspect:

a neurological emergency.
a respiratory emergency.
an endocrine emergency.
a cardiac emergency.

Chapter: 4, Question 35, Total: 122:
In which of the following emergencies would your patient most likely present with a chief complaint of headache?


Chapter: 4, Question 36, Total: 123:
The secondary assessment, when conducted on an unresponsive medical patient, can be defined as:

a comprehensive history.
a repeat of the patient's vital signs and primary examination conducted for comparison to the established baseline.
a systematic assessment that is aimed at quickly identifying undiscovered life threats.
a comprehensive history and physical examination.

Chapter: 4, Question 37, Total: 124:
A 14-year-old female is complaining of knee pain after a fall on the playground. Witnesses state that she had no unconsciousness and stood immediately after falling. She is now alert and complaining of no other pain or injury. After completing a primary assessment, you should next:

obtain a SAMPLE history.
apply a cervical collar.
complete a rapid trauma assessment.
assess the patient's knee and leg.

Chapter: 4, Question 38, Total: 125:
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the rapid trauma assessment?

Do not delay transport to conduct the rapid trauma assessment.
The rapid trauma assessment is for patients without a significant mechanism of injury.
Limit the rapid trauma assessment to a visual inspection only.
The rapid trauma assessment should be performed at the scene.

Chapter: 4, Question 39, Total: 126:
What process would you use to discover the circumstances surrounding the chief complaint of the responsive medical patient?


Chapter: 4, Question 40, Total: 127:
When your patient tells you that he had a heart valve replaced two years ago, this is considered:

irrelevant to today's problems.
pertinent past medical history.
an event leading up to today's problem.
a chief complaint.

Chapter: 4, Question 41, Total: 128:
Which of the following BEST describes the purpose of repeating the primary assessment?

To recheck for ongoing life-threatening problems
To reassess mental status
To monitor skin color and temperature
To maintain an open airway

Chapter: 4, Question 42, Total: 129:
Which of the following represents a significant mechanism of injury?

Fall from less than 6 feet
Pedestrian hit by automobile
Fall from a bicycle
Superficial burns over 2% of the body

Chapter: 4, Question 43, Total: 130:
Which of the following terms means that a sign or symptom suggests the possibility that a problem is very serious?

Black flag
Red flag
Differential diagnosis
EMT diagnosis

Chapter 5

Chapter: 5, Question 1, Total: 131:
Which of the following terms BEST describes a device that picks up signals from lower-power radio units and retransmits at a higher power?

Mobile radio
Cell phone
Base station

Chapter: 5, Question 2, Total: 132:
Which of the following types of radios is typically used in a vehicle?


Chapter: 5, Question 3, Total: 133:
Which of the following devices may be used to speak to medical control with the LEAST risk of someone hearing the conversation?

Cell phone
Base station
Mobile radio
Portable radio

Chapter: 5, Question 4, Total: 134:
Which of the following technologies permits transmission of some standard messages, such as arriving on the scene, by pushing a key that allows the message to be transmitted in a condensed form?

Digital radios
Backup radios
Mobile fax

Chapter: 5, Question 5, Total: 135:
In the emergency prehospital care communications system, a mobile transmitter/receiver:

is a portable radio that is useful when you are working at a distance from your vehicle.
serves as a dispatch and coordination area.
is a device that receives transmissions and rebroadcasts them at a higher power.
is a vehicle-based radio that comes in a variety of power ranges.

Chapter: 5, Question 6, Total: 136:
Which of the following resides at a fixed site, such as a dispatch center?

Mobile radio
Base station
Portable radio
Cell phone

Chapter: 5, Question 7, Total: 137:
Jurisdiction over all EMS radio operations in the United States is held by the:

Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Federal Communications Commission.
Department of Transportation.
Department of Health and Human Services.

Chapter: 5, Question 8, Total: 138:
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) controls and regulates all:

television, aircraft, marine, and mobile land-frequency ranges only.
interstate and international communications by radio, television, wire, satellite and cable in the United States.
communications in the United States.
nonemergency communications in the United States.

Chapter: 5, Question 9, Total: 139:
When you press the button on the radio to talk, you should wait at LEAST how many seconds before speaking to avoid cutting off the first words of your transmission?

One second
Five seconds
Three seconds
Seven seconds

Chapter: 5, Question 10, Total: 140:
When you are attempting to make contact with another ambulance unit using the radio, it is necessary to declare the name of which entity FIRST?

The repeater location
The unit you are calling
Your unit number
The base station

Chapter: 5, Question 11, Total: 141:
After telling the hospital the age and sex of your patient, what is the NEXT thing you need to report?

The patient's vital signs
The patient's name
The patient's chief complaint
The estimated time of arrival (ETA)

Chapter: 5, Question 12, Total: 142:
When communicating with medical direction, you should provide the following information early in your dialogue:

The patient's chief complaint
The patient's ethnic origin
The patient's marital status
The patient's name

Chapter: 5, Question 13, Total: 143:
When the EMT calls to receive an order from medical direction to assist the patient with his bronchodilator treatment, it is important to:

tell the physician what the EMT's diagnosis is.
be sure to say "please" and "thank you" for the order.
"echo" or immediately repeat the order back for verification.
use as many codes as possible, since people may be listening.

Chapter: 5, Question 14, Total: 144:
Which of the following statements about receiving orders over the radio is TRUE?

If an order appears to be inappropriate, write down every word so that you may defend yourself later if necessary.
If an order appears to be inappropriate, contact your dispatcher to report.
If an order appears to be inappropriate, repeat the order to the physician and ask pertinent questions about the order.
If an order appears to be inappropriate, call another hospital to confirm.

Chapter: 5, Question 15, Total: 145:
Once you arrive at the hospital with your patient, it is important to give the ED staff an oral report. This report should include:

personal information about the patient that is not pertinent to medical care.
only new information. It is not necessary to repeat your broadcasted report.
the patient's billing and insurance information.
treatment that was given to the patient en route and the patient's response to that treatment.

Chapter: 5, Question 16, Total: 146:
Which of the following is information that is not generally included in the verbal report at the receiving hospital?

Patient name
Insurance information
Additional treatment given en route
Most recent vital signs

Chapter: 5, Question 17, Total: 147:
Which of the following is the most important objective associated with proper communication skills?

Ensuring that you are quoted correctly by the local newspaper
High-quality interpersonal relationships
Clear radio communications
Patient safety

Chapter: 5, Question 18, Total: 148:
In interviewing a patient, which of the following is recommended?

Assign the patient a friendly nickname.
Start important statements with "Now listen."
Direct the patient to keep statements brief.
Use the patient's proper name.

Chapter: 5, Question 19, Total: 149:
When communicating with an elderly patient:

remember that elderly people are all at some stage of Alzheimer's disease.
calling elderly people names such as "Dear" and "Honey" makes them feel better.
remember that many elderly people are well-oriented and physically able.
Always speak loudly and slowly, as elderly people are all hearing impaired.

Chapter: 5, Question 20, Total: 150:
As an EMT, you will need to know how to communicate with patients in a manner that establishes a positive relationship. This is often referred to as:

Interpersonal dynamics.
decoding feedback loops.
diagnostic communication.
therapeutic communication.

Chapter: 5, Question 21, Total: 151:
Which of the following BEST explains why all patient care reports done in the United States are supposed to have the minimum data set included?

It allows better research and standardization of EMS care.
It shortens the overall length of the PCR.
It allows the tracking of information to ensure the elderly population is managed correctly.
It is required for Medicaid and Medicare to provide reimbursement.

Chapter: 5, Question 22, Total: 152:
Which of the following is typically NOT included in the patient data section of a prehospital care report?

The ambulance service name
The patient's age and sex
Billing information
The mechanism of injury

Chapter: 5, Question 23, Total: 153:
Which of the following is the MOST important reason for maintaining good documentation standards?

Good documentation improves the billing process.
Good documentation contributes to continuity of care.
Good documentation facilitates CQI.
Good documentation reduces disciplinary problems.

Chapter: 5, Question 24, Total: 154:
After reviewing the PCR forms for the last six months, EMS management determined that a remediation class needed to be set up to improve use of the pediatric immobilization device during transport. What type of function did the PCR serve in that purpose?

Disciplinary use
Administrative use
CQI/research use
Legal use

Chapter: 5, Question 25, Total: 155:
Which of the following terms BEST describes an abbreviated form of the PCR that an EMS crew can leave at the hospital when there is not enough time to complete the PCR before leaving?

Patient care record
SOAP notes
Drop report
Run data

Chapter: 5, Question 26, Total: 156:
You are en route to the ED with a critical patient when your ambulance's mobile radio fails. Which of the following may be used to contact the hospital?

Base station
Local law enforcement
Cell phone

Chapter: 5, Question 27, Total: 157:
What power output do most portable radios have?

5 to 10 watts
0.5 to 3 watts
1 to 5 watts
25 to 35 watts

Chapter: 5, Question 28, Total: 158:
A radio that is located at a stationary site is called a:

base station.

Chapter: 5, Question 29, Total: 159:
Radio communications include trends in the patient's condition, responses to interventions, and information from the scene and are monitored by the:


Chapter: 5, Question 30, Total: 160:
What does "PTT" mean on a portable or mobile radio?

Press to terminate.
Patient telemetry transmit.
Press to talk.
Pre-transmit toggle

Chapter: 5, Question 31, Total: 161:
Which of the following is TRUE about use of the patient's name over the radio?

It may violate confidentiality rules.
Refer to all patients as Jane or John Doe.
Spell the patient's last name to avoid confusion.
Most hospitals require you to provide the patient's name.

Chapter: 5, Question 32, Total: 162:
Which of the following is a routine radio transmission for an EMT?

Contacting the patient's personal physician while you are en route to the hospital
Contacting law enforcement with medical information about the patient
Notifying dispatch when you are five minutes from the scene
Notifying dispatch of your arrival at the hospital

Chapter: 5, Question 33, Total: 163:
Which of the following is appropriate in communicating with medical direction over the phone or radio?

"Patient likely experiencing non-cardiac chest pain."
"Patient presents with myocardial infarction."
"Patient with symptoms of heart attack."
"Patient is complaining of chest pain."

Chapter: 5, Question 34, Total: 164:
Which of the following methods of communicating with medical direction BEST protects the patient's privacy?

Using your dispatcher to relay the information
Using the phone at the patient's residence
Using the mobile radio
Using the portable radio

Chapter: 5, Question 35, Total: 165:
When communicating within the EMS system, you should keep your transmission brief and remember to:

state your ID number and then the number of the unit you are calling.
speak with your lips directly on the microphone.
begin talking as soon as you depress the microphone button.
listen before transmitting.

Chapter: 5, Question 36, Total: 166:
When receiving orders from medical direction, you should do all of the following EXCEPT:

giving the patient's name over the radio.
avoiding phrases such as "please," "thank you," and "you're welcome."
asking for clarification of an order that you did not understand or feel is inappropriate.
repeating the order word for word.

Chapter: 5, Question 37, Total: 167:
You may receive an order from medical direction over the radio to help a patient with his medication. After receiving the order, you should NEXT:

confirm the order with your partner.
repeat the order.
repeat vital signs.
administer the medication.

Chapter: 5, Question 38, Total: 168:
Patient condition, vitals, and pertinent medical history would typically be communicated to what party?

The receiving hospital
The patient's family

Chapter: 5, Question 39, Total: 169:
Guidelines for communicating with your patient includes which of the following?

Be informal with older patients and call them by their first name.
Never touch a patient in a comforting manner, as the patient will perceive it as encroachment.
Refrain from explaining what you are doing, as it takes too much time.
Listen carefully and allow time for the patient to answer.

Chapter: 5, Question 40, Total: 170:
Typically, you should do which of the following when interviewing your patient?

Stand above the patient.
Position yourself below the patient's eye level.
Position yourself at the patient's eye level.
Change positions frequently.

Chapter: 5, Question 41, Total: 171:
Why is poor communication a contributor to patient safety risks?

It can lead to medical errors.
The patient may be charged for a skill you did not provide.
You could get an over-response to the call.
You might take the patient to the wrong hospital.

Chapter: 5, Question 42, Total: 172:
Which of the following is TRUE about communicating with patients from a different culture?

You should take no action until you understand the key cultural differences.
Cultural differences can make effective communication more challenging.
Cultural differences have no impact on communication.
The patient's culture is irrelevant to the EMT.

Chapter: 5, Question 43, Total: 173:
You are treating an elderly man who tells you that his name is Robert Walters. What is the MOST appropriate way to refer to him?

Mr. Walters

Chapter: 5, Question 44, Total: 174:
The Department of Transportation's minimum data set for patient information gathered by the EMT includes:

the patient's medical insurance information.
systolic blood pressure for patients older than one year old.
the patient's respiratory rate and effort.
capillary refill for patients younger than three years old.

Chapter: 5, Question 45, Total: 175:
Which of the following should be avoided in completing the vital signs division of the PCR?

If you take only one set of vital signs, estimating a second set
Taking and recording at least two complete sets of vital signs
Documenting the time the patient's vital signs were taken
Documenting the position the patient was in when vitals were taken

Chapter: 5, Question 46, Total: 176:
Which of the following can lead to medical error on a patient care report?

Using anatomical language
Using accepted medical abbreviations
Using quotations to document the language of the patient
Stating only facts as you found them

Chapter: 5, Question 47, Total: 177:
Which of the following is CORRECT about the prehospital care report?

It serves administrative functions.
It is not part of the patient's permanent medical record.
It is only for the eyes of other EMS providers.
It serves only one function.

Chapter: 5, Question 48, Total: 178:
What type of report is usually left with the receiving facility if the EMS system is using electronic charting and normally faxes the chart in later?

A PCR with only the patient demographics and administrative section completed
A drop report
A temporary report
A full written PCR

Chapter: 5, Question 49, Total: 179:
What is the difference between the patient information section of the PCR and the administrative information that is included on the PCR?

The patient information includes the patient's address only, and the administrative section include the trip times.
The patient information includes the patient assessment information, and the administrative section is the name and address of the EMS system.
The patient information includes specific assessment findings, and the administrative information includes the trip times.
The patient information is the chief complaint, and the administrative information is the EMS arrival time.

Chapter: 5, Question 50, Total: 180:
When a service uses review of patient care reports to track and shorten response times, they are using data for?

Disciplinary use
Research use
Administrative use
Quality improvement

Chapter: 5, Question 51, Total: 181:
The EMT accurately documents that she gave a medication without appropriate medical direction. This is an example of:

an error of commission.
an error of omission.
falsification of the PCR.
gross negligence.

Chapter: 5, Question 52, Total: 182:
Complete documentation on a PCR includes:

discharge instructions.
summary of law enforcement activities.
administrative information.
all possible differential diagnosis.