Chapter 9

Chapter: 9, Question 1, Total: 0:
Which of the following is the most likely cause of lower airway resistance?

Swelling of the tongue.
A spasm of the mainstem bronchus.
A piece of meat sitting on the epiglottis.

Chapter: 9, Question 2, Total: 1:
A harsh, high-pitched sound heard during inspiration, characteristic of an upper airway obstruction due to swelling, is called:


Chapter: 9, Question 3, Total: 2:
The passageway by which air enters or leaves the body is called the:


Chapter: 9, Question 4, Total: 3:
Which of the following is part of the upper airway?


Chapter: 9, Question 5, Total: 4:
Where is the palatine tonsil located?


Chapter: 9, Question 6, Total: 5:
Which of the airway structures are surrounded by the pulmonary capillaries?


Chapter: 9, Question 7, Total: 6:
Which of the following is TRUE about airway control of the unresponsive medical patient?

Manual airway maneuvers are not necessary if the patient is a medical patient.
The EMT will be forced to use the modified jaw lift on this medical patient.
An airway adjunct should be used first on any unresponsive patient.
Manual airway maneuvers help to prevent the tongue from blocking the airway.

Chapter: 9, Question 8, Total: 7:
Blood, vomitus, or other substances that occlude the nasopharynx may drain and lead to:

laryngeal trauma.
airway obstruction.

Chapter: 9, Question 9, Total: 8:
You perform a jaw thrust on an unconscious patient and assess for airway patency. Which of the following may indicate the patient has an occluded airway?

There is no audible stridor or wheezing.
There are no teeth or vomit in the airway.
There is no sign of breathing or air movement.
The rise and fall of the chest are equal.

Chapter: 9, Question 10, Total: 9:
To assess a patient's airway, you should:

percuss the chest.
measure for an OPA.
measure oxygen saturation with a pulse oximeter.
look for signs of breathing.

Chapter: 9, Question 11, Total: 10:
Your patient with facial burns was talking clearly a few minutes ago, but his voice now seems to be developing some hoarseness. What is happening to his airway?

The glottic opening is enlarging, thus making this sound.
Soot has gotten into his oropharynx and is irritating the uvula.
Swelling is building up in and around the vocal cords.
His nasopharynx is starting to become edematous.

Chapter: 9, Question 12, Total: 11:
A high-pitched noise is coming from your patient's upper airway. This patient has:

rhonchi likely caused by pneumonia.
stridor caused by upper airway obstruction.
rales caused by heart failure.
wheezing likely caused by an asthma attack.

Chapter: 9, Question 13, Total: 12:
Which of the following patients cannot reliably manage his or her own airway?

An alert patient with dyspnea
An unresponsive patient
A trauma patient who is complaining of abdominal pain
A confused diabetic patient

Chapter: 9, Question 14, Total: 13:
Which of the following patients has an open airway but is still at risk for airway compromise?

A child with a hoarse voice and wheezing after a bee sting
A child who is screaming for her parents after falling off her bike and scraping her leg
A child with a recurrence of hiccups and coughing over the past few hours
A child who was choking on a piece of candy but has spit it out and is crying loudly and forcefully

Chapter: 9, Question 15, Total: 14:
Signs that your patient may have a completely blocked airway include which of the following?

the ability to speak full sentences.
a strong cough.
equal rise and fall of the chest.
no signs of air movement.

Chapter: 9, Question 16, Total: 15:
Signs of an adequate airway include:

nonlabored breathing.
absent breath sounds.

Chapter: 9, Question 17, Total: 16:
To perform a head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver, you should place one hand on the patient's forehead and:

place the fingertips of your other hand under the patient's jaw.
remove the patient's dentures immediately.
place one hand on the patient's forehead and the other under the neck.
use the thumb of one hand to lift the patient's chin if necessary.

Chapter: 9, Question 18, Total: 17:
You are caring for an adult who witnesses say became unconscious on the couch and slid to the carpeted floor. She appears to have taken an overdose of a medication. What technique should you use to open her airway?

OPA insertion maneuver
Head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver
Neck-lift maneuver
Modified jaw-thrust maneuver

Chapter: 9, Question 19, Total: 18:
Why would an EMT select an NPA instead of an OPA?

The patient refuses to have an airway inserted.
The patient still has a gag reflex.
The patient is in shock.
The patient is allergic to airways.

Chapter: 9, Question 20, Total: 19:
Which of the following statements is TRUE about the oropharyngeal airway?

Measure the oral airway by comparing the airway to the patient's little finger.
An appropriate manual airway technique should be performed before using the OPA.
The oral airway may be used in any conscious patient who needs airway control.
The preferred method of insertion in an infant or child is upside-down first.

Chapter: 9, Question 21, Total: 20:
If you hear a gurgling sound when you are assessing the airway or during artificial ventilation, you should:

turn the patient on his or her side and allow the secretions to drain out.
ventilate more forcefully to clear the airway of secretions.
immediately apply suction to remove the liquid from the airway.
perform a blind finger sweep to clear the airway.

Chapter: 9, Question 22, Total: 21:
Which of the following is true regarding the use of a rigid suction catheter?

It is best in the suctioning of a conscious patient.
It is recommended for deep suctioning of the upper airway.
It is more effective for particulate matter than is a soft catheter.
It is recommended for both oral and nasal suctioning.

Chapter: 9, Question 23, Total: 22:
When fluids or secretions are present in the airway or whenever a gurgling sound is heard, what needs to be done?

Having the patient take a deep breath
Turning the patient prone
Suctioning of the airway
Sitting the patient upright

Chapter: 9, Question 24, Total: 23:
What is the maximum amount of time that should be taken to suction the oropharynx of an adult?

10 seconds
25 seconds
20 seconds
15 seconds

Chapter: 9, Question 25, Total: 24:
You are called to a residence for a 19-year-old female who had a seizure and is now unresponsive with gurgling respirations. Which of the following devices should you utilize FIRST?

A nonrebreather mask
A bite block
A portable suction unit

Chapter: 9, Question 26, Total: 25:
When using a soft (French) catheter to suction a patient's mouth and oropharynx, you should:

measure from the tip of the nose to the tip of the ear.
suction for no more than 30 seconds at a time in the infant patient.
measure the catheter from the earlobe to the corner of the mouth.
insert the catheter 1 to 2 cm past the base of the tongue.

Chapter: 9, Question 27, Total: 26:
Which of the following is a difference between a pediatric airway and an adult airway?

A child has a wider trachea.
A child's cricoid cartilage is harder and stronger.
A child has a smaller nose and mouth.
A child has a smaller tongue and a larger mouth.

Chapter: 9, Question 28, Total: 27:
What position should a child be placed in to open and maintain an airway?


Chapter: 9, Question 29, Total: 28:
Vomiting or gagging when something is placed in the back of the pharynx is called:

the Moro reflex.
the gag reflex.

Chapter: 9, Question 30, Total: 29:
Which of the following is part of the lower airway?

Mainstem bronchus

Chapter: 9, Question 31, Total: 30:
What structure lies just posterior to the trachea?

Ethmoid sinus
Eustachian tube

Chapter: 9, Question 32, Total: 31:
Which of the following is the MOST common cause of airway obstruction in the unresponsive patient?

The tongue

Chapter: 9, Question 33, Total: 32:
You approach the patient and identify yourself. She smiles and says, "Thank you for coming." What do you know about the status of her airway?

It is open, and she is capable of moving air right now.
It is open but always has the potential to swell.
It is partially open but needs to be assessed further.
It must be compromised because she answered you with only one sentence.

Chapter: 9, Question 34, Total: 33:
Which of the following is a common cause of foreign body airway obstruction?


Chapter: 9, Question 35, Total: 34:
Which of the following patients has an open airway but is still at risk for airway compromise?

A patient who overdosed on a narcotic, was breathing four to six times per minute, was given naloxone, and is now alert and breathing at 16 times per minute
A patient who has started to snore after falling into a deep, sound, restful sleep
A patient who was rescued from a house fire and has facial burns and is coughing up black, sooty sputum
A patient who swallowed water after he panicked in the deep end of a pool and began coughing but who is not coughing now

Chapter: 9, Question 36, Total: 35:
You observe a child with retractions, nasal flaring, and decreased level of consciousness. These are signs that the patient has:

respiratory arrest.
an inadequate airway.
mild dyspnea.

Chapter: 9, Question 37, Total: 36:
When opening the airway of a patient with a suspected spinal injury, you should:

position the patient's head so that it is slightly flexed or tilted forward.
use the jaw-thrust maneuver.
use the same head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver as you would use on non-trauma patients.
tilt the patient's head back, but do not lift under the neck.

Chapter: 9, Question 38, Total: 37:
Insertion of a nasopharyngeal airway includes:

lubricating the tube with a petroleum jelly type product.
facing the bevel of the airway toward the outside of the nostril.
keeping the flange of the airway approximately 1 centimeter from the flare of the nostril.
measuring the airway from the nostril to the tip of the earlobe.

Chapter: 9, Question 39, Total: 38:
How should the EMT measure the soft (French) suction catheter before inserting it into the oral cavity?

From the tip of the nose to the corner of the mouth
From the earlobe to the corner of the mouth
From the corner of the mouth to the sternal notch
From the tip of the nose, around the ear, and then to the sternal notch

Chapter: 9, Question 40, Total: 39:
Which of the following is NOT usually required in suctioning a patient?

Eye protection

Chapter: 9, Question 41, Total: 40:
When the suction tubing is kinked, the on-board suction unit should be able to create a negative suctioning pressure of:

300 mmHg.
500 mmHg.
200 mmHg.
400 mmHg.

Chapter: 9, Question 42, Total: 41:
Sometimes it may be necessary to do which of the following to clear the oropharynx manually?

Reach in with Magill forceps to move the uvula
Do a lengthy, manual blind finger sweep
Log roll the patient
Perform rapid, deep abdominal thrusts

Chapter 10

Chapter: 10, Question 1, Total: 42:
Unlike normal respirations, labored breathing usually involves use of:

intercostal muscles.
the lungs.
accessory muscles.
the diaphragm.

Chapter: 10, Question 2, Total: 43:
The amount of air moved into and out of the alveoli in one minute is called the:

alveolar ventilation.
residual ventilation volume.
tidal volume.
minute volume.

Chapter: 10, Question 3, Total: 44:
Which of the following respiratory rates would NOT be found in a patient experiencing respiratory distress?

Slower than normal.
Faster than normal.

Chapter: 10, Question 4, Total: 45:
How does exhalation take place?

The intercostals and diaphragm relax.
The nervous system activates.
The diaphragm contracts.
The intercostals contract.

Chapter: 10, Question 5, Total: 46:
Why does air enter the lungs during inhalation?

High pressure outside the body and negative pressure inside the lungs
High pressure outside the body and positive pressure inside the lungs
Low pressure outside the body and positive pressure inside the lungs
Low pressure outside the body and negative pressure inside the lungs

Chapter: 10, Question 6, Total: 47:
When the diaphragm contracts, the patient:

is able to speak.

Chapter: 10, Question 7, Total: 48:
Only slight chest movement or abdominal wall motion is an indication of:

noisy breathing.
labored breathing.
shallow breathing.
normal breathing.

Chapter: 10, Question 8, Total: 49:
An increase in which of the following will cause the breathing rate to increase?

Carbon dioxide

Chapter: 10, Question 9, Total: 50:
When a patient is found to have a normal respiratory assessment, this means that the patient should have:

an irregular breathing pattern.
an acceptable respiratory rate.
shallow ventilations.
wheezing or crackles.

Chapter: 10, Question 10, Total: 51:
The product of tidal volume and ventilation rate is:

alveolar volume.
minute volume.
dead space air.
pulmonary respiration.

Chapter: 10, Question 11, Total: 52:
Which of the following has the MOST significant impact on regulation of breathing?

Nitrogen levels
Carbon dioxide levels
Hydrogen levels
Blood glucose levels

Chapter: 10, Question 12, Total: 53:
What is a detrimental effect of hypoxia?

Respiratory alkalosis
Brain damage

Chapter: 10, Question 13, Total: 54:
Which of the following will prevent the blood from carrying enough oxygen to the body's cells?

Taking antibiotics
A blood sugar above 120 mg/dl
Significant blood loss
Development of renal calculi

Chapter: 10, Question 14, Total: 55:
Which of the following patients is at risk for failure of the cardiopulmonary system?

A patient who is experiencing an aura
A patient who is breathing at 20/minute
A patient with severe asthma or COPD
A patient with PTSD

Chapter: 10, Question 15, Total: 56:
Your patient has an adequate respiratory rate but an inadequate tidal volume. This will lead to:

an adequate tidal volume over time.
increased respiratory volume.
improved health of the patient.
inadequate breathing.

Chapter: 10, Question 16, Total: 57:
Your patient has a heart rate of 100 per minute, and her ventilations are 26. She is awake and alert with some mild expiratory wheezing. How would you classify her?

Respiratory distress
Respiratory stable
Respiratory failure
Respiratory arrest

Chapter: 10, Question 17, Total: 58:
Which of the following MOST likely indicates acute hypoxia?

A history of smoking
Warm, flushed skin
Restlessness and confusion
Hyperactivity and alertness

Chapter: 10, Question 18, Total: 59:
Which of the following MOST likely indicates hypoxia?

Pale skin
Flushed skin

Chapter: 10, Question 19, Total: 60:
Assessing a patient's spontaneous ventilations is BEST done by:

listening for the sound of wheezing.
looking closely for chest rise.
watching for the use of accessory muscles of breathing.
watching for condensation on the inside of the mask as the patient breathes.

Chapter: 10, Question 20, Total: 61:
You are treating a patient who has taken too much of her pain-relieving narcotic. She is breathing very slowly with minimal chest rise. The BEST device to administer oxygen to this patient would be the:

nasal cannula.
nonrebreather mask.
bag-mask device with supplemental oxygen.
CPAP device with supplemental oxygen.

Chapter: 10, Question 21, Total: 62:
You should administer oxygen by NRB mask to a patient:

with adequate breathing and a pulse ox of 90%.
who is apneic with a pulse ox of 76%.
whose breathing is inadequate with a pulse ox of 88%.
whom you are bagging at 10 times per minute.

Chapter: 10, Question 22, Total: 63:
Why should EMS providers administer oxygen to a patient who is suspected of hypoxia?

More oxygen in the inspired air will increase the amount absorbed by the blood.
More oxygen in the inspired air will raise the respiratory rate.
More oxygen in the inspired air will slow the respiratory rate.
More oxygen in the inspired air will decrease the absorption of other gases present.

Chapter: 10, Question 23, Total: 64:
An acronym for the manually triggered ventilation device is:


Chapter: 10, Question 24, Total: 65:
If you notice the apneic patient's abdomen getting larger during artificial ventilation, what should you do?

Ensure that you are not hyperventilating the patient.
Call for a Paramedic unit.
Roll the patient onto his or her side for a while.
Decrease the oxygen concentration.

Chapter: 10, Question 25, Total: 66:
Which of the following is a complication of using an FROPVD on an adult patient?

Gastric distention can occur.
The risk of hyperventilation is eliminated.
It requires multiple rescuers.
The patient receives high-concentration oxygen.

Chapter: 10, Question 26, Total: 67:
When ventilating with a bag-mask device, the EMT should:

hyperventilate the patient.
ensure that there are air leaks around the mask seal.
watch for chest rise with each ventilation.
ventilate over two seconds.

Chapter: 10, Question 27, Total: 68:
Why should you avoid aggressive hyperventilation with a BVM?

Hyperoxygenation can result in oxidative stress.
Hyperventilation can result in swelling of the brain.
Additional air may be introduced into the stomach.
Overstimulation of the trachea can result in swelling of the tracheal lumen.

Chapter: 10, Question 28, Total: 69:
To avoid hyperventilating a patient, the EMT should:

ventilate the patient with an FROPVD.
ventilate the patient with a two-person BVM technique.
ventilate the patient with the lowest amount of oxygen needed to keep the pulse ox greater than 95%.
ventilate the patient at the appropriate rate and depth.

Chapter: 10, Question 29, Total: 70:
A permanent surgical opening in the neck through which the patient breathes is called a:


Chapter: 10, Question 30, Total: 71:
The rate of artificial ventilations through a stoma is based on:

the EMT's preference.
the patient's oxygen saturation.
the patient's pulse rate.
the patient's age.

Chapter: 10, Question 31, Total: 72:
Which of the following patients MOST needs supplemental oxygen?

An asthmatic patient who fell off her bike
An alert diabetic patient who missed a meal
A patient who sprained his right ankle
A cardiac arrest patient who is being resuscitated

Chapter: 10, Question 32, Total: 73:
You are treating a patient who needs supplemental oxygen but will not tolerate the nonrebreather mask that you would like to use. What should you do?

Skip the oxygen for the ride to the hospital.
Switch to a simple mask.
Switch to a nasal cannula.
Admonish the patient for being uncooperative.

Chapter: 10, Question 33, Total: 74:
Which of the following is appropriate for delivery of high-flow oxygen of 80% or greater?

Simple face mask
Nasal cannula
Nonrebreather mask
Venturi mask

Chapter: 10, Question 34, Total: 75:
What is normally the maximum flow setting for oxygen delivery with a nonrebreather mask?

60 lpm
6 lpm
12 lpm
15 lpm

Chapter: 10, Question 35, Total: 76:
Low concentrations of oxygen (24% to 44%) can be administered by using:

a BVM.
a nasal cannula.
a partial rebreather.
a nonrebreather.

Chapter: 10, Question 36, Total: 77:
What oxygen delivery device can provide precise concentrations of oxygen?

Simple face mask
Venturi mask
Partial rebreather mask
Nonrebreather mask

Chapter: 10, Question 37, Total: 78:
A number of different oxygen cylinders are available. Which of the following is TRUE?

The D cylinder is the largest tank, with a capacity of 6,900 liters.
No matter what size it is, an oxygen tank is full at a pressure of 2,000 psi.
Oxygen is highly flammable.
Oxygen pressure regulators should be cleaned frequently with oil to prevent rust.

Chapter: 10, Question 38, Total: 79:
What is the approximate amount of oxygen in a portable D cylinder?

250 liters
450 liters
550 liters
350 liters

Chapter: 10, Question 39, Total: 80:
What is the universal color for medical grade oxygen tanks?


Chapter: 10, Question 40, Total: 81:
Oxygen cylinders should be hydrostatically tested:

only if damage is suspected.
before each use.
every shift.
every five to ten years.

Chapter: 10, Question 41, Total: 82:
When should the EMT consider humidifying oxygen for a patient?

Only if the patient requests it
Whenever oxygen is administered by nasal cannula
When the oxygen will be administered over a long period of time
Whenever high-concentration oxygen is administered

Chapter: 10, Question 42, Total: 83:
Which of the following patients would be the MOST likely to receive humidified oxygen?

A patient who is en route to the hospital after resuscitation from sudden cardiac arrest
An asthma patient who is being transferred to a pulmonary center in another part of the state
A patient who is complaining of leg pain
A stroke patient

Chapter: 10, Question 43, Total: 84:
An insufficient supply of oxygen to the body's tissues is called:


Chapter: 10, Question 44, Total: 85:
The amount of air that enters the alveoli for gas exchange is referred to as:

pulmonary circulation.
alveolar ventilation.
compliance volume.
residual volume.

Chapter: 10, Question 45, Total: 86:
Out of a normal tidal volume, how much air actually reaches the alveoli?

500 ml
150 ml
200 ml
350 ml

Chapter: 10, Question 46, Total: 87:
When a person inhales, the diaphragm:

and the intercostal muscles relax.
and the intercostal muscles contract.
contracts and the intercostal muscles relax.
relaxes and the intercostal muscles contract.

Chapter: 10, Question 47, Total: 88:
A decrease in which of the following will cause breathing rates to increase?

Carbon dioxide

Chapter: 10, Question 48, Total: 89:
Assuming no change in respiratory rate, what happens if the tidal volume is decreased?

Alveolar ventilation is unaffected.
Alveolar ventilation decreases.
Minute volume increases.
Dead space air increases.

Chapter: 10, Question 49, Total: 90:
What gases are exchanged during the process of respiration?

Oxygen and nitrogen
Nitrogen and carbon monoxide
Oxygen and carbon dioxide
Nitrogen and carbon dioxide

Chapter: 10, Question 50, Total: 91:
Which of the following patients is at risk for failure of the cardiopulmonary system?

A patient who fell three feet off a porch onto his feet
A patient who has had a tourniquet applied to an extremity with a laceration
A patient who exercises daily at a moderate pace
A patient who hit the steering wheel of a car with her chest at 90 mph

Chapter: 10, Question 51, Total: 92:
You are caring for a patient with respiratory distress. The patient is found in a seated position with nasal flaring and absent breath sounds. You also note cyanosis at the nail beds. Which of these findings is MOST suggestive of inadequate breathing?

Absent breath sounds
The chief complaint
The seated position

Chapter: 10, Question 52, Total: 93:
Which of the following patients is MOST likely hypoxic?

A patient who was trapped in a fire for an extended time period
A patient who has just been removed from a hyperbaric chamber at the doctor's office
A patient with a small laceration and controlled bleeding
An adult patient who is breathing 18 times per minute and is in no obvious distress

Chapter: 10, Question 53, Total: 94:
Assessment of a patient's breathing should include:

palpation of the torso.
assessing the patient's pulse pressure.
assessing the patient's pulse.
observing the chest for adequate expansion.

Chapter: 10, Question 54, Total: 95:
Why is it important to administer oxygen to the patient with respiratory compromise?

To maintain the patient's body temperature
To minimize the cell hypoxia
To dilate the bronchioles
To improve the blood flow to the brain

Chapter: 10, Question 55, Total: 96:
What is the cause of gastric distention during ventilation?

Too slow a ventilatory rate
Too low a tidal volume every time the bag is squeezed
Airway pressures generated during ventilation that are too high
Improper mask seal

Chapter: 10, Question 56, Total: 97:
A common problem caused by overly aggressive manual ventilation by the EMT is:

gastric distention.
a narrowing of the pulse pressure.

Chapter: 10, Question 57, Total: 98:
When ventilating an adult with a pulse using a bag-mask device, the EMT should ventilate the patient:

40 to 60 times a minute.
10 to 12 times a minute.
20 to 32 times a minute.
12 to 20 times a minute.

Chapter: 10, Question 58, Total: 99:
The preferred method of artificial ventilation is:

two-person BVM.
mouth to mouth.
single-rescuer BVM.
a flow-restricted, oxygen-powered ventilation device (FROPVD).

Chapter: 10, Question 59, Total: 100:
When ventilating a patient, you should see:

the oxygen saturation dropping below 94%.
gray or ashen skin color.
the chest rise and fall with each ventilation.
a pulse rate below 60 per minute.

Chapter: 10, Question 60, Total: 101:
What must be done before providing ventilations through a stoma?

Clear any mucus or secretions from the stoma.
Turn the patient's head to the side.
Determine the condition that led to the stoma.
Attempt to ventilate with the mask over the patient's face.

Chapter: 10, Question 61, Total: 102:
A nasal cannula should be used to administer oxygen to a patient:

who needs only small amounts of oxygen.
who is experiencing chest pain.
who is suffering from severe hypoxia.
who is not yet unconscious.

Chapter: 10, Question 62, Total: 103:
The reservoir bag on a nonrebreather mask should:

completely collapse when the patient inhales.
not completely empty during inhalation.
not have a reservoir.
be detached if the patient is receiving less than 12 lpm oxygen.

Chapter: 10, Question 63, Total: 104:
When delivering oxygen via a nonrebreather mask, you are:

not to exceed a 10 lpm flow rate.
delivering the highest concentration of oxygen possible.
delivering the lowest concentration of oxygen possible.
increasing the patient's risk of vomiting.

Chapter: 10, Question 64, Total: 105:
A device that is used to dial in exact oxygen concentrations for the patient who needs low to moderate concentrations of oxygen is a:

rebreather mask.
partial-rebreather mask.
venturi mask.
nonrebreather mask.

Chapter: 10, Question 65, Total: 106:
Oxygen should never be used:

on infants.
on COPD patients.
around open flames.

Chapter: 10, Question 66, Total: 107:
Never use adhesive tape on an oxygen tank, as it may cause:

an unprofessional appearance.
oxygen contamination.
a fire.
corrosive residue.

Chapter: 10, Question 67, Total: 108:
What is the approximate amount of oxygen in a G cylinder?

2,250 liters
4,450 liters
5,300 liters
3,350 liters

Chapter: 10, Question 68, Total: 109:
The maximum flow rate recommended to achieve high concentrations of oxygen when using a nonrebreather mask is typically:

10 lpm.
15 lpm.
8 lpm.
6 lpm.

Chapter: 10, Question 69, Total: 110:
If you will be transporting a patient to a hospital hours away, and the patient requires supplemental oxygen, which of the following will likely make the patient more comfortable?

humidified oxygen.
a nasal cannula.
a tracheostomy mask.